Water Soluble Vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins consist of the B-group vitamins and vitamin C. Their deficiency is treated by administration of the deficient vitamin.
B Group Vitamins Features
- A common feature of group B vitamins is their occurrence in yeast (except vitamin B12). However, if the yeast is included in the diet only as a means of rising bread, then yeast is not considered the major source of group B vitamins in humans; a small quantity of yeast does not contain nutritionally significant amount of B vitamins.
- Their metabolic effects are inter-linked.
- Deficiency of only a single vitamin occurs rarely.
- They are produced by the intestinal micro flora but the amount produced is generally only a fraction of the daily recommended intake.
- Some are more frequently called by their name, others by number. Some vitamins may not have a number because it has been found that some substances, originally considered as vitamins, are NOT essential for humans, therefore they are not vitamins or are a mixture of substances.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Thiamine ( vitamin B1 ) is a coenzyme decarboxylase important for the metabolism of glucose and energy supply to nerve and muscle cells.
Meat, fish, cereals, yeast, legumes.
Daily recommended intake for adults: 1-1.4 mg 
The disease beri-beri
from a lack of dietary vitamin B1 is found today in very poor population groups (e.g. refugees) in countries where people live mostly on polished/white rice. It may also develop in people who live mostly on refined wheat flour products and among alcoholics and food faddists.
A typical image consists of nervous disorders, especially peripheral nerves (dry beri beri), edema and heart disease (beri beri wet). Impaired absorption of vitamin B1 occurs in alcoholics and is manifested by Wernicke encephalopathy.
Suboptimal thiamine status based on biochemical criteria in Europe was detected only in 4-6% of the population. Risk group are alcoholics.
Laboratory evaluation: thiamine excretion in the urine. In the absence of erythrocytes is reduced transketolase concentration in the blood and the sea is high concentrations of glycoxalate.
Signs of excess are not encountered.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is part of coenzymes flavinadenine mononucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), plays a key role in oxidative metabolism.
A small amount is found in many foods. Main sources are meat, milk and milk products; good sources are also fish, offal (inner organs), eggs, and whole grain cereals. Milling of cereals removes most of vitamin B2 - some countries (e.g. USA) fortify cereal products with riboflavin.
Recommended daily intake for adults: 1.2 to 1.5 mg 
According to several population studies, the deficiency is widespread in developing countries, where diet is poor in animal foods, vegetables and fruits, and where cereals are milled (white flour). Frequently the deficiency is secondary due to malabsorption, enterocolitis, coeliac disease , chronic hepatitis; in children often after the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. It may develop in cancer, cardiac disease, diabetes
Clinical picture: The description of the signs of riboflavin deficiency is somewhat inconsistent in various scientific publications. Riboflavin deficiency occurs almost always together with deficiencies of other group B vitamins, which may cause some of the signs decribed in literature. The signs most frequently described are: angular stomatitis, peeling lips (cheilosis), glossitis, and normocytic normochromic anemia.
Laboratory evaluation: decreases secretion of vitamin B2 in urine (normal values are 106–638 nmol/l) , decreased concentrations of glutathione and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes.
Signs of excess are not known.
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Niacin (vitamin B3) is the name for nicotinamide and nicotinic acid. It is part of enzymes, oxido-reduction systems (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide -NAD, nicotinamide adenine diphosphate -NADP). May form in the liver from tryptophan and its biosynthesis is very slow and it is needed vitamin B6.
The source of most foods - meat, fish, cereals. The recommended daily dose for adults is by age and sex of 13-17 mg
Disease pellagra is caused by the current lack of niacin and its precursor tryptophan. Today it has rarely occurs in a very poor population groups or for refugees in developing countries. Occurs in people who eat mostly corn/maize. The symptoms are as a mnemonic device used sometimes called "disease of three D" - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia.
Signs of excess food are not known. High doses of dietary supplements induce vasodilatation, warmth, gastritis, damage to liver cells.Income should not exceed 35 mg / kg / day.
Nicotinic acid (niacin) and its derivatives are used to treat hyperlipidemia by inhibiting the secretion of VLDL from the liver and increasing the activity of peripheral lipoprotein lipase. This leads to a reduction in circulating VLDL (ie, TAG) and, consequently, LDL( cholesterol ).In contrast adipose tissue blocking the intracellular lipase , thus releasing the MK inventory, further reducing supply to the liver TAG and reduces VLDL synthesis.
- Adverse effects:harmless vasodilation (mediated release of prostaglandins ) in the skin associated with subjective stream feeling hot - it can handle submitting aspirin; at 1 / 5 of patients treated with hyperuricemia; skin rash.
Vitamin B5 (panthothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid ( vitamin B5) is part of coenzyme A .
Small amounts are in almost all foods contain a large amount of yeast, liver, meat, milk, whole grains and legumes. The daily recommended dose for adults: 6 mg
Lack is not present - described only when administered pantothenic acid antagonists and extremely malnourished people with symptoms of deficiency of other nutrients, is manifested hair follicle atrophy, loss of pigmentation, dermatitis .
Signs of excess are not known.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Pyridoxine the name vitamin B6 comprises a group of compounds (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal and phosphate). Itcoenzyme for more than 50 enzymatic reactions - decarboxylase and transaminases, synthesis of acid nicotine and arachidonic acid , affects the function of the nervous system, immune reactions and synthesis of haemoglobin.
It is abundant in food. The daily recommended dose for adults: 13-17 mg
Deficiency with normal eating habits does not occur; manifested skin and mucosal changes that occur rhagades corners, peripheral neuropathy .
Excess of food does not occur. After a prolonged intake of 50-500 mg have been reported sensory neuropathy.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin Vitamin B7 , vitamin H, factor R - Several scholars have described it, only later discovered that it is the same substance) is important for the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids, is a cofactor for carboxylases.
At low concentrations in many foods. Rich sources are yeast, liver, egg yolk, nuts, lentils. The daily requirement (RDA can not be estimated): 30-60 mg
Deficiency of food does not occur. Scientists described the people who long consumed a large amount of raw eggs (irreversibly binds to biotin with avidin contained in raw egg white) and improper parenteral nutrition. Symptoms : seborrheic dermatitis , fatigue, anorexia , nausea ,hypercholesterolemia , vascular disorders.
Signs of excess are not known.
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folic acid also is known as vitamin B9, folate or folacin . Includes a group of compounds: Folic Acid (contains pterin, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic ) and folic acid. Along with vitamin B12 is essential for the formation of nucleic acids and thus for synthesis of DNA , participate in the transfer radicals and in all processes of cell division , it is important for cell division and tissue with high mitotic activity.Absorbed in the proximal parts of the small intestine and when excess it is excreted in the urine.
Liver, yeast, green leafy vegetables, as well as whole grain cereals, meat, milk, eggs and legumes. The recommended daily adult dose: 400mg. In pregnancy, 600mg for prevention of congenital malformations (mainly cleft neural tube).
Deficiency of vitamin B9 occurs in low supply, absorption or increased need during pregnancy. There is a megaloblastic anaemia , which is characterized by the presence of abnormal precursors of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Compared with normal cells are cells arising from these abnormal precursors of different shape, larger size, reduced viability and reduced ability to transport oxygen . Along with the lack of iron is its lack of a significant cause of anaemia in developing countries. Deficiency during pregnancy causes spina neural tube in the fetus.
- Laboratory evaluation: serum levels of folate, total homocysteine (increases in the absence, also in the absence of vitamin B12)
High intake of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 , so the upper limit of the daily recommended intake of up to 1000 mg / day.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Vitamin B12(cobalamin) is the collective name for several compounds that are in the center of porphyrin skeletal cobalt . Vitamin B12 has a number of biological functions - plays an important role in hematopoiesis, is essential for the development of the central nervous system in children, contributes to the formation of nucleic acids , transmetylation marches and has anabolic effect. Deficiency of vitamin B12 in adults causes macrocytic anemia , impaired rear and lateral spinal cords, peripheral nerves and dementia or depression . Lack of vitamin B12 also affects secondary folate cycle resulting in impaired synthesis of purines and pyrimidines necessary for the formation of DNA and RNA.
In nutritionally significant quantities occurs only in animal foods. Rich sources are liver, kidney, meat warm-blooded animals (1-2 ìg/100 g), fish, egg yolk and dairy products (milk ìg/100, 0.3 ml cheese ìg/100 0.2 to 0.6g). Plant foods contain trace amounts of vitamin B12 only if it has been processed by bacterial fermentation (e.g beer). Absorbed in the small intestine only if the stomach creates a complex with an internal factor .Therefore it is necessary to properly functioning stomach and large amounts of vitamin B12 are formed by the intestinal flora in humans unusable. Cobalamine with an internal factor in the distal ileum bind to specific receptor cubilin and this complex then enters by endocytosis into enterocytes. Inside the enterocyte cobalamin binds to other carriers and excreted into the plasma. 75-80% is bound to haptocorrin and goes to hepatocytes. The cells of other organs enter only vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin II (the holotranscobalamin) after binding to specific receptors through endocytosis. The cell cobalamin is converted to active metabolites and adenosylcobalamine methylcobalamin, which serve as cofactors of enzymes. The daily recommended dose for adults : 3 mg. Minimal in infants: approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg.
Haemopoiesis; development of the central nervous system in childhood; cofactor of two metabolic reactions: conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthase (failure of this reaction leads to the accumulation of homocysteine); conversion metylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA action metylmalonyl-CoA mutase (failure of this reaction leads to an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and its increased urinary excretion).
Its deficiency is clinically manifested failure to thrive, macrocytic anemia and neurological symptoms. An adult is a stock (2-5 mg) of vitamin B12 in the liver, which cover the need for a period of 5-10 years. Stocks, which creates the infant in utero (approximately 25 micrograms), will be exhausted as early as 3-5 months. Among laboratory manifestations include mostly macrocytic anemia, elevated aminotransferases, hyperhomocysteinemia and increased acid secretion metylmalonic acid plasma concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid excretion increased in the urine. Metabolic changes precede clinical manifestations. Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that leads to atrophy of the gastric mucosa and by the lack of intrinsic factor.
Signs of excess were reported even after a high intake (5 mg) of the supplement.
L-ascorbic acid , also known as vitamin C is water soluble strongly reducing effects. Man (as well as other primates and guinea pigs) cannot synthesize it, since it lacks L-gulonolactonexidase activity, therefore it must receive in food. L-ascorbate is involved in the hydroxylation of collagen , the synthesis of carnitine , the metabolism of tyrosine , acts as an antioxidant, supports immune system, iron absorption, has an effect on beta-oxidation of fatty acids , increases the activity of microsomal enzymes, accelerates the detoxification of xenobiotics. Reducing the effects of ascorbic acid are due to its easy oxidation to dehydroascorbate:
Fruits, vegetables (including potatoes), liver. Average losses in cook foods are 30%. The daily recommended dose for adults : 100 mg . When the determination is considered, in addition to prevention of deficiency symptoms, as well as strengthening the immune system and prevention of degenerative diseases. Increased need for considerable physical exertion, psychological stress, alcohol abuse and drugs, some diseases (eg diabetes, renal insufficiency, infection). Intake of 150 mg / day is recommended for smokers.
Ascorbic acid deficiency - scurvy (scurvy) - now appears only in extreme conditions. With a slight lack of preclinical manifestations we see in our country (fatigue, prolonged convalescence, impaired wound healing and decreased resistance to infection).
- Laboratory evaluation of the situation: the level of vitamin C in plasma. Clinical symptoms appear with values ≤ 10 µmol/L, an indicator of low intake of vitamin C are considered to values below 37 µmol/L. In terms of prevention of atherosclerosis and the tumors are regarded as desirable values ≥ 50 µmol / L.
Signs of excess food are not. Approximately 1% of the unused vitamin C is converted to oxalate, the risk of urinary calculi, but low in healthy subjects. The care the daily intake should not exceed 1000 mg. Very high doses (5 g) can cause diarrhea . At high ascorbate intake (about grams per day), most of the substance excreted in the urine. It can then interfere with many clinical biochemistry determination by routine chemical urinalysis.
- Fat Soluble Vitamins
- Current Dietary Guidelines for Healthy Population
- Dietary Guidelines for Population
- ↑ a b
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Sweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungforschung, Sweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung. . Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr (DACH). 1. edition. Frankfurt am Main : Umschau/Braus, 2000. 216 pp. ISBN 3-8295-7114-3.
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- ↑ WHO, UNHCR. . Thiamine deficiency and its prevention and control in major emergencies [online] . 1. edition. Geneva : World Health Organization, United Nations High Commisioner for Refugees, 1999. 52 pp. Available from <http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/emergencies/WHO_NHD_99.13/en/index.html>.
- ↑ a b STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES AND ITS PANEL ON FOLATE, OTHER B VITAMINS, AND CHOLINE AND SUBCOMMITTEE ON UPPER REFERENCE LEVELS OF NUTRIENTS, FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE,. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline [online] . 1. edition. Washington D.C : National Academic Press, 1998. 592 pp. Available from <https://download.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309065542>. ISBN 0-309-59725-0.
- ↑ a b WHO, FAO,. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition [online] . 2. edition. Geneva : WHO, 2004. 341 pp. Available from <http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241546123.pdf>. ISBN 924154612 3.
- ↑ ORDINACE.CZ,. Laboratorní hodnoty : in Czech: Normal values for laboratory tests The database has been created in collaboration with the Institute of clinical biochemistry and laboratory diagnostics, General University Hospital in Prague [online]. Pears Health Cyber, s. r. o. 2012, The last revision 2012-02-21, [cit. 2012-02-24]. <http://www.ordinace.cz/laboratorni-hodnoty/238/#detail>.
- BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene and epidemiology : selected chapters. 2. edition. Prague. 2008. ISBN 80-246-0793-X.