Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
|GIT, nc. suprachiasmaticus hypothalamus|
|polypeptide of 28 amino acids|
|G-protein-coupled receptors for the glucagon/secretin superfamily|
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is present in the enteric system as a neurotransmitter, it is also found in the CNS (in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus), in the adrenal medulla, in the blood and together with acetylcholine in the autonomic ganglia.
Its secretion from the jejunum is stimulated by fat, the stimuli for its production are also of neurogenic origin.
Its effects are:
- stimulation of the secretion of water and electrolytes in the intestine;
- stimulation of the relaxation of the smooth muscle of the intestine and sphincters;
- vasodilatation of peripheral blood vessels;
- attenuation of hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach;
- attenuation of stomach movements.
It is also an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator.
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References[edit | edit source]
- GANONG, William F. Review of medical physiology : No. 20. edition. Prague : Galén, 2005. ISBN 80-7262-311-7.