From WikiLectures

Psychotherapy methods are based on the theoretical frameworks of individual trends.

Rational psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • affects the patient through logical thought processes – interpretation, essence of the disease, solutions, advice
  • conversation is the basis
  • a widespread part of medical practice
  • it cannot be overestimated, all activity cannot be reduced to thought processes

Suggestive psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • the opposite of rational psychotherapy, it tries to bypass the rational component of the psyche, the patient has to accept the statements and follow them
  • the patient must be suggestible
  • takes place in an awake or hypnotic state
  • it is also a placebo effect

Hypnosis[edit | edit source]

  • a psychologically induced state of altered consciousness
  • increased suggestibility
  • several procedures
  • sleep method
    • the most common type
    • suggestions induce a feeling of sleepiness and fatigue
    • gloom, silence, monotonous speech help

Psychotherapy through empathic conversation[edit | edit source]

  • C. Rogers
  • the patient talks about what seems important to him
  • the therapist listens, responds, describes feelings, empathizes, is non-directive, friendly
  • the authenticity of the psychotherapist
  • unconditional positive regard
  • empathy

Relaxation and imagination psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

Autogenic training[edit | edit source]

  • it is based on the fact that psychological tension, activation of the vegetative system and skeletal muscle tension are related
  • by reducing skeletal muscle tension, we reduce psychological tension
  • lower level – 6 tasks:
    • weight training, heat, heart activity, breathing, abdominal organs, head
  • individual formulas - targeted at certain difficulties that the individual wants to eliminate ("I don't have a sweet tooth", "things are going well"...)

Catathymic-imaginative psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • relaxation is used to visualize various motifs
  • the patient completes the topics in order to put his problems into them
  • e.g. an image of a meadow - the patient fills it in with details

Exercise psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • basic principle – practice
  • learning new, consistent and targeted repetition of tasks and increasing the difficulty of tasks
  • on the basis of operant conditioning, conditioned reflexes, learning theory
  • elimination of bad habits
  • goal: a positive habit
  • developing desired skills
  • phobia - gradual overcoming
  • treatment sex. dysfunction (erectile dysfunction, vaginismus )

Assertiveness training[edit | edit source]

  • improving interpersonal interaction
  • enforcement of legitimate claims

Aversive therapy[edit | edit source]

  • associates unwanted activities with an unpleasant stimulus
  • treatment of alcohol dependence - apomorphine, antabuse

Systematic desensitization[edit | edit source]

  • relieves phobias
  • the patient relaxes and imagines that he is experiencing fear
  • exposure

Imitation and other techniques[edit | edit source]

  • observation of other persons
  • psychodrama

Psychoanalysis[edit | edit source]

  • treatment of severe neuroses and certain personality disorders
  • the analyst sits behind the patient's head so that the examinee cannot see him, the patient lies down
  • the patient is to say whatever comes to mind
  • one session lasts 50 minutes, 4-5 times a week, on the order of hundreds of sessions, even several years
  • the analyst responds with interpretations
  • transference – the specific relationship of the analysand to the analyst
  • countertransference – the analyst projects his unconscious wish onto the patient

Cognitive behavioral therapy[edit | edit source]

Group psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • more types:
  1. based on psychodrama
  2. based on psychoanalysis
  3. based on transactional analysis
  4. eclectically conceived

Other types of psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

BENEŠ, Jiří. Studijní materiály [online]. [cit. 10.03.2010]. <>.