Prevention as a tool of modern medicine has to contribute to sustainable human development and life. The essence of the concept of prevention is the notion that the active influence of risk factors will be possible to reduce the incidence of disease. The earlier meaning of the word prevention - thus "prevent" or "prevention" of disease was spread through a new perspective. Today, especially when we talk about chronic diseases, we see prevention as a "brake" disease progression, or "zoom out" of its clinical manifestations. Prevention therefore covers all stages of the natural evolution of the disease. To distinguish prevention in each of these stages, we use the terms primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Stages Development of Natural Disease[✎ edit | edit source]
- 0th stage = health
- 1/2 stage = borderline or mildly elevated levels of certain risk factors
- First stage of disease = stage preclinical alterations (changes in the subcellular level)
- Second stage of disease = subclinical alterations (laboratory methods and stress tests can be demonstrated biochemical, cellular or physiological changes)
- Third stage of disease = stage clinical manifestation (the first symptoms leading to diagnosis)
- 4th stage of disease = stage organ complications
- 5th stage of disease = death
Primordial Prevention[✎ edit | edit source]
This kind of prevention is concerned 0th up to 1st/2nd development stages of the disease. The purpose is to reduce the incidence of disease by preventing the emergence of increased risk. Primordial prevention may relate to the whole population or only its selected groups. In its procedures include creating optimal living conditions. These include measures relating to proper diet, adequate physical activity, relaxation and the fight against smoking and other addictions to drugs. Efficiency is increasing application of these principles since childhood.
Primary Prevention[✎ edit | edit source]
Primary prevention is concerned with 1st /2nd to 1st development stage of the disease. The aim is to reduce the incidence of disease (or at least delay the emergence of) already incurred by removing risk factors. This type of prevention concerns again the whole population or groups at increased risk, but still without evidence of the disease. The procedures consist of regime change through intervention or medication. We are trying to reduce the influence of risk factors while increasing protective factors of influence. Prevention here again depends entirely on the activities of individuals at risk - his lifestyle choices and motivation. It is therefore important to inform individuals about why and how they can reduce risk factors for disease. Active patient approach is absolutely necessary.
Secondary Prevention[✎ edit | edit source]
It concerns the first to 3rd development stages of the disease. Its essence is early diagnosis, which leads to prevent the progression or cure of asymptomatic or early stage development of the disease. The target group are patients in the lightest stage of clinical manifestations of disease. It's all about pre-and sub-clinical stage. The methods are mainly the already mentioned early detection of disease through screening programs and preventive examinations. Here is important information for the population, both knowledge of their specific risk factors and knowledge of early signs of ill health. Most interventions for prevention of this kind, however, falls into the hands of doctors.
Tertiary Prevention[✎ edit | edit source]
This kind of prevention deals with third to 4th stage of disease. The aim is to limit disease progression , prevention of recurrence of clinical events and prevent disability or loss of self-sufficiency. This prevention is aimed at patients in the developed stage of the disease. By filling it comes to treatment and rehabilitation effort to restore the patient to the state before the outbreak of the disease. It includes, therefore, attempt to reintegrate and maintain quality of life.
Links[✎ edit | edit source]
Related articles[✎ edit | edit source]
Bibliography[✎ edit | edit source]
- BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene and epidemiology : selected chapters. 2. edition. Prague. 2008. ISBN 80-246-0793-X.