PARK genes

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PARK genes are genes associated with the hereditary form of Parkinson's disease.

The relationship of PARK genes to the development of Parkinson's disease[edit | edit source]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurological disease, the pathological-anatomical basis of which is the formation of intracellular inclusions containing alpha-synuclein and the premature death of pigmented neurons in the pars compacta substantia nigra. This causes a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum, and thus an insufficiency of stimulation of the dopaminergic receptors D1 and D2. The direct consequence of this deficit is the dysfunction of the motor circuits of the basal ganglia. These connections play an essential role in the regulation of free motor skills, deciding on the selection of appropriate and inhibition of inappropriate movement patterns and synergisms.

The cause of PD is still unknown. We distinguish between genetically conditioned and sporadic forms of the disease.

It is assumed that most cases are the result of a combination of a certain genetic predisposition and long-term exposure to toxins from the environment, or certain products of metabolism. Scientific research has led to the identification of several monogenic forms of the disorder and many genetic risk factors that increase the risk of developing PD. The hereditary form collectively accounts for 20% of PD cases before the age of 40 and 2% of patients after the age of 50.

PD, which is genetically influenced, has several types with regard to the age of onset:

  • juvenile (age of onset ≤ 21 years)
  • EOPD (early onset PD –age of onset under 30 years)
  • Early onset PD (age of onset ≤ 50 years)
  • Classic form.

Forms of PARK genes[edit | edit source]

Several PARK genes are currently known, the most important of which are listed in the table:

Tab. 1: Summary of Hereditary Parkinson's Disease Genes
Symbol Locus Illness Heridity Gene
PARK2 6q25.2-q27 EOPD AR Parkin
PARK3 2p13 classic PD AD Unknown
PARK5 4p13 classic PD AD UCHL1
PARK6 1p35-p36 EOPD AR PINK1
PARK8 12q12 classic PD AD LRRK2
PARK9 1p36 Kufor-Rakeb syndrome AR ATP13A2
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Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

KOLLAR, Katarina et al.. Genetics of Parkinson's Disease (online) [online]. ©2007. [cit. 2020-04-16]. <>.

KLEIN, Christine. Genetics of Parkinson’s Disease [online]. ©2012. [cit. 2020-04-16]. <>.