Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
In nephrotic syndrome is typically presented:
- nephrotic proteinuria > 1 g/m2/day,
- hypoproteinemia - albumin usually < 25 g/l, based on protein loss to urine,
- hypercholesterolemia - based on increased lipoprotein synthesis (caused by hypoproteinemia),
- edema - based on increased naturism resorption in tubules.
Symptomes[edit | edit source]
Edemas have sudden beginning, localization: eyelids, ankles, scrotum or anasarca. Ascites might be presented too. It is connected with weight gain. In some cases edema can be presented by diarrhea (intestinal edema) or pulmonary edema or pulmonary effusion. Blood pressure should be normal (compare with PSAGN!). Generalized weakness.
Diagnostic[edit | edit source]
- complete history and physical examination (previous pharyngitis → PSAGN, gastroenteritis → HUS, present edema, petechiae, hypertension ...)
- confirmation of presence proteinuria (is necessary repeat urinalysis)
- protein/creatinine ratio (from first morning urine sample), if P/C ratio is > 0,5, other evaluation is necessary:
- serum electrolytes analysis, creatinine clearance, serum levels of cholesterol, total protein, albumin
- streptozyme, C3, C4, ASLO analysis
- renal ultrasonography
Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome[edit | edit source]
- Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most often cause of nephrotic syndrome in childhood (80% of nephrotic syndrome). For more information see Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the 2nd most often cause of NS (10% of patients), its presentation is very similar to MCNS.
- Membranous nephropathy is quite rare in childhood, it is cause of 1% NS, it is more in adolescents and children with systemic infections (hepatitis B, syphilis, malaria...)
- Congenital nephrotic syndrome
Links[edit | edit source]
Related articles[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- KLIEGMAN, Robert M, et al. Nelson Essential of Pediatrics. 5th edition. Philadelphia : Elsevier, 2006. ISBN 1-4160-0159-X.
- DOLEŽALOVÁ, Šárka. Nefrologie I [lecture for subject Peadiatrics, specialization Peadiatrics, 1 LF Charles University in Prague]. Prague. 2011-11-21. Avaliable from <http://kddl.lf1.cuni.cz/download/Nefrologie.I.pdf>.