From WikiLectures

A hallucinogen can be a natural or synthetic substance. They are used in cult ceremonies with the participation of a shaman or to induce psychosis.

Speeches[edit | edit source]

Hallucinogens cause visual and auditory hallucinations, as well as changes in the perception of reality. A person acts uncontrollably and unexpectedly, therefore he can pose a threat to himself and others.

They usually have a rapid onset of action. The fading time ranges from a few hours to a few days. Symptoms are similar to schizophrenia, alienation, hysteria, delirium.

An overdose can also cause death (e.g. DOB – 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine).[1] With chronic abuse, psychological dependence, tolerance and flashbacks can occur.[1]

Division[edit | edit source]

Hallucinogenic substances are divided according to their origin into natural and synthetic.

Synthetic, semi-synthetic substances[edit | edit source]

  • Phencyclidine ("angel dust"), nitrous oxide ("paradise gas");
  • LSD – synthesis from ergot;
  • MDMA, TMA, PMA, DOB,....[1]

Natural substances[edit | edit source]

We can find them in plants and living organisms.

  • Cannabinoids
  • Psilocybin, psilocin (Psilocybe mexicana, Psilocybe bohemica...).
  • Mescaline (Peyotl cactus).
  • Dimethyltryptamine, DMT (common reed, some acacias, etc.).
  • Ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga).
  • Scopolamine/Atropine (Atropa belladona, Hyoscyamus niger, Datura stramonium etc.).
  • Bufotenin (secretion of toad BUFO, seeds of sedge, e.g. Anadenanthera colubrina...).[1]

Hallucinogen-type drug addiction[edit | edit source]

Hallucinogens (psychedelics, delirogens, fantastics, psychosomimetics, psychotomimetics, psychodysleptics) induce psychological changes in users up to the stage of toxic psychosis.

  • Qualitative disorders of consciousness, complete or insular memory loss,
  • euphoria or depression, anxiety (can lead to aggression), panic,
  • disturbances in the perception of time and space, time runs faster or, on the contrary, slower, wrong estimation of distances, disturbance in the perception of surroundings, feelings of derealization, at higher doses hallucinations
  • persecutory and other delusionss, loss of judgment
  • striking behavior, hyperactivity or, conversely, stiffness.[2]

Active ingredients[edit | edit source]

  • Psilocybin' - bald eagles,
  • ibotenic acid, muscarine' - red toadstool,
  • mescaline - cactus Lophophora Wiliamsi
  • bufotenin - seeds of the plant Cohoba
  • ibogain - the root of the bush Tabernate Iboga
  • Atropine, Scopolamine - dope.[2]
  • DMT - Reed Beetle, Reed.[2]

Mechanism of action[edit | edit source]

  • Acts on serotonin receptors
  • mild psychological dependence and the absence of somatic dependence and withdrawal
  • behavioral disorders during psychosis
  • psychotic reminiscences (flashbacks).[2]
    Searchtool right.svg For more information see Hallucinogens.

Atropine – Scopolamine[edit | edit source]

Atropine – ester of tropic acid and tropine[edit | edit source]


  • an alkaloid obtained from numerous eggplant plants
  • natural is (−) hyoscyamine – pharmacologically effective
  • when treated in solutions, it spontaneously changes to the racemate - atropine

Scopolamine – Hyoscine[edit | edit source]

  • an alkaloid found in plants alongside hyoscyamine in varying amounts
  • chemically and in effect it is close to atropine
  • both substances have one center of asymmetry – 2 enantiomers

Mechanism of action[edit | edit source]

  • Atropine inhibits the effects of acetylcholine by competing for receptors.
  • Atropine has a high affinity for the receptor, but does not activate it.
  • Acetylcholine release is not affected by atropine.
  • Atropine thus weakens the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine.

Symptoms of poisoning[edit | edit source]

  • facial redness, dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, mydriasis.[1]

LSD[edit | edit source]

Searchtool right.svg For more information see LSD.

Psilocybin – Psilocin[edit | edit source]



  • ester of phosphoric acid and 4-hydroxy-N', N'-dimethyltryptamine
  • (for structural similarity see serotonin 5-HT)
  • Unstable, spontaneously splits into psilocin
  • Effects - unpredictable.[1]

Ancient Cult Rites[edit | edit source]

Hallucinogenic substances used in cult ceremonies in Asia, Africa and South America. Anticholinergic substances in plants with magical powers:

  • Indian drink Ayahuasca
- harmaline, harmine, harmalol, DMT, scopolamine, atropine.
  • Snuff "cohoba, yopo"
- bufotenine, DMT.
  • Amanita muscaria - Siberian peoples
- muscarine, ibotenic acid - muscimol.}}

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. a b c d e f {{#switch: web |book = Incomplete publication citation. BALÍKOVÁ, MaryAlso available from <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>.  |collection = Incomplete citation of contribution in proceedings. BALÍKOVÁ, Mary. Also available from <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>. {{ #if: |978-80-7262-438-6} } |article = Incomplete article citation.  BALÍKOVÁ, Mary. Abuse and intoxication. also available from <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>.  |web = BALÍKOVÁ, Mary. Abuse and intoxication [online]. [cit. 2012-03-09]. <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>. |cd = BALÍKOVÁ, Mary. Abuse and intoxication [CD/DVD]. [cit. 2012-03-09].  |db = Incomplete database citation. Abuse and intoxication [database]. [cit. 2012-03-09]. <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>. |corporate_literature = Incomplete citation of company literature. BALÍKOVÁ, Mary. Also available from <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>. legislative_document = Incomplete citation of legislative document.  Also available from URL <https://el.lf1.cuni.cz/p56355604/>.
  2. a b c d {{#switch: web − |book = Incomplete publication citation. Sananim – civic association −. unknown −. Also available from <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>.  |collection = Incomplete citation of contribution in proceedings. Sananim – civic association −. unknown −. Also available from <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>. {{ #if: |978-80-7262-438-6} } |article = Incomplete article citation.  Sananim – civic association −. Hallucinogens −. unknown −, year unknown −, also available from <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>.  |web = Sananim – civic association −. Hallucinogens − [online]. ©unknown −. Last revision unknown −, [cit. 2010-04-07 −]. <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>. |cd = Sananim – civic association −. Hallucinogens − [CD/DVD]. ©unknown −. Last revision unknown −, [cit. 2010-04-07 −].  |db = Incomplete database citation. Hallucinogens − [database]. ©unknown −. Last revision unknown −, [cit. 2010-04-07 −]. <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>. |corporate_literature = Incomplete citation of company literature. Sananim – civic association −. unknown −. Also available from <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>. legislative_document = Incomplete citation of legislative document.  unknown −. Also available from URL <http://www.drogovaporadna.cz/halucinogeny.html −>.