Gastrin is a peptide hormone that plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal function. It is produced by G-cells in the antral part of the gastric mucosa and TG-cells scattered in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. To a lesser extent, it is also formed and secreted in the central nervous system (pituitary, hypothalamus and elongated spinal cord) and in some peripheral nerves.
The gastrin precursor preprogastrin is cleaved into fragments of various sizes, the most common being gastrin with 34, 17 and 14 amino acid residues. The individual forms differ in their effectiveness and representation in the tissues.
Gastrin stimulates the secretion of gastric and pancreatic juice, insulin and glucagon, motility of the stomach and intestine, increases the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter and has a trophic effect on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. G-cell secretion of gastrin is stimulated by an increase in gastric pH, the presence of amino acids and peptides in the stomach, and a parasympathetic agent. In contrast, a decrease in gastric pH and the hormone somatostatin reduce gastrin secretion.
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References[edit | edit source]
- GANONG, William F. Overview of medical physiology. 20. edition. Prague : Galén, 2005. 890 s. s. 488. ISBN 80-7262-311-7.
- ↑ GANONG, William F. Overview of medical physiology. 20. edition. Prague : Galén, 2005. 890 s. s. 490. ISBN 80-7262-311-7.
- ↑ GILES, G R, M C MASON a C HUMPHRIES, et al. Action of gastrin on the lower oesophageal sphincter in man. Gut [online]. 1969, vol. 10, no. 9, s. 730-4, also available at <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1552975/?tool=pubmed>. ISSN 0017-5749.
- ŠVÍGLEROVÁ, Jitka a Jana SLAVÍKOVÁ. Physiology of gastrointestinal tract. 1. edition. Prague : Karolinum, 2008. ISBN 9788024615264.
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- Overview of gastrointestinal hormones