Forms and methods of psychotherapy

From WikiLectures

The influence of therapist is hard to quantify, but lies probably around 20%

Process of psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

Indication → preparation → psychotherapeutc relation and space, the actual therapy and the psychotherapeutic process → evaluation and termination

Forms of psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • According to the group size: Individual, group, couples, family, community treatment (AA)
  • See Question 25 for different types of psychotherapy

Methods of psychotherapy[edit | edit source]

  • Psychotherapeutic interview
  • Psychodrama
  • Psychogymnastics
  • Relaxation methods
  • Focusing
  • Imagination techniques
  • Work with dreams

Rational emotive behavior therapy:[edit | edit source]

- humans do not get emotionally disturbed by unfortunate circumstances, but by how they construct their views of these circumstances through their language, evaluative beliefs, meanings and philosophies about the world, themselves and others (concept from Roman philosopher Epictetus. - A-B-C model: A (Adversity), B (developed belief in the person about A), C (consequences of that belief B), D (person’s later disputes of A, B and C), E (effective new philosophy or belief which develops in that person through the occurrence of D in their minds) and F (developed feelings of one’s self at point C or after point E);

Hypnotic therapy[edit | edit source]

intended to induce relaxation and a heightened state of suggestibility. During hypnosis the previously repressed traumatic memories can reveal intensive emotional reactions; But the effects are short lasting and an intense emotional relationship with hypnotist may be disadvantageous;

Suggestive therapy[edit | edit source]

used to induce abreaction (expression of a previously repressed emotion) as a means of analgesia, being mainly used in a post-hypnosis state

Autogenic training (created by Schultz)[edit | edit source]

used to treat physical symptoms of anxiety or psychic tension. It’s divided into stages in which the patient is trained in a step-by-step manner to reach muscle relaxation, embrace a feeling of heaviness, warmth/cooling of body parts, slow RR & HR. After a few sessions, the patient may be fully in charge of training himself, using it in any stressful situation or as a sleep-induction technique;

Group therapy[edit | edit source]

members of the group learn from the success and mistakes of the others and are discovering that other people have similar problems, the patient practices social behavior and tests his/ her opinions against those of others. Group therapy can incorporate a psychoanalytical or behavioral tx; - E.g. chronic psychic disorders, cancer, or parents of autistic children or with leukemia; -Balint’s groups” are important for professionals working in emotionally demanding professions; Some groups may work even without a therapist (e.g. alcoholics anonymous);

Family therapy[edit | edit source]

work on problems within families (e.g. foster care) by encouraging family members and loved ones to help and emphasize with each other (understand and appreciate each others needs) thus finding ways to cope collaboratively with any distress, misunderstanding and pain that might be affecting their relationships and putting strain on the family unit. Common problems include divorce, separation, illness, death of a loved one, work or school related problems, psychosexual difficulties, parent-child conflict, ADHD, addictions, eating disorders, depression, … - Psychodrama (created by Moreno): often used in group therapy, where the patient acts out his own social or family situations and through the reactions of other patients (“actors”) reaches insight into why his behavior may be unsuitable!

Psychotherapeutic approaches:[edit | edit source]

Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic techniques: focuses on changing problematic behaviors, feelings and thoughts by discovering their unconscious meanings & motivations (via a close relationship between therapist-patient); - Behavior therapy: focuses on learning to develop normal behavior. From Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” to E. L. Thorndike’s “operant conditioning” (reward/punishment to shape one’s behavior); - Cognitive therapy (Albert Ellis & Aaron Beck): emphasizes on what people “think” rather than on what they “do”, being dysfunctional thinking the reason behind dysfunctional emotions and behaviors; - Humanistic therapy (J. P. Sartre, M. Buber, S. Kierkegaard) emphasizes people’s capacity to make rational choices and develop to their maximal potential, always concerning for and respecting others. - Integrative/holistic/eclectic therapy: blending elements from different approaches and tailoring therapies according to each patient’s own needs;

Biological feedback[edit | edit source]

patient obtains visual/acoustic information about the physiological values of his/her organism (EEG, BP, …) which then regulates psychologically in the direction of the desired state;