Evaluation of spermiogram

From WikiLectures

  • Quantitative microscopic analysis of ejaculate obtained after 2-4 days of sexual abstinence by masturbation or captured during sexual intercourse in a condom made of a special material that does not damage sperm.[1]
  • In recent years, there has been a permanent deterioration of the spermiogram:
    • in 1951 the lower limit was 80 mil./ml, in 1964 it was revised to 40 mil./ml, in 1980 to 20 mil./ml and in 2010 WHO established 15 mil./ml as the norm.[2]

Normal spermiogram[edit | edit source]

  • After 2-7 days of sexual abstinence:
    • volume 1.5-4.8 ml;
    • pH 7,2–7,8;
    • sperm above 15 million/ml;
    • total movement: 40 %
    • progressive movement: 32 %
    • morphology: normal forms of sperm: 4 %

Findings[edit | edit source]

Ejaculate sample - azoospermia with multiple leukocytes (pyospermia)

If we talk about the quality/quantity of the ejaculate as such, we use the suffix - spermia, but if we want to comment on the number or characteristics of the sperm contained in the ejaculate, we use the suffix - zoospermia. It is good to be aware of this distinction in terminology, as it is often mistaken.

  • aspermia – complete absence of ejaculate (no ejaculate formed or retrograde ejaculation);
  • pyospermia – leukocytes in the ejaculate;
  • hemospermia – erythrocytes in the ejaculate;
  • normozoospermia – parameters are within normal limits;
  • oligozoospermie:
    • below 15 mil./ml, the probability of fertilization may be reduced [3]
    • drop below 5 million/ml – oligospermia gravis;
  • asthenozoospermia – sperm movement is lower than normal, higher percentage of defective forms;
  • teratozoospermia– too many morphologically abnormal sperm;
  • azoospermia – sperm are absent:
    • obstructive;
    • testicular;
  • necrozoospermia – only avital sperm are present;
  • cryptozoospermia - the absence of sperm in the native sample, after centrifugation the presence of a small amount of sperm (serves to distinguish azoospermia, which most often has an obstructive etiology, from a serious disorder of the germinal epithelium)
  • combination of the above pathologies: oligoasthenozoospermia, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia, oligoteratozoospermia.

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