Epidemiology of Tobacco Dependence

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Smoking[edit | edit source]

Smoking is the most common cause of preventable death around the world. Cigarettes are the only product which, when used as instructed by tobacco companies, can cause death to half of their consumers. Regular smokers can lose between 8 -15 years of their life due to cigarettes. Each year a total of 5 million people die worldwide from smoking related diseases; 22000 of which are from the Czech Republic.

It is not just smokers directly who are affected; second-hand smoke contributes to 600,000 premature deaths each year.

Tobacco dependence is a chronic disorder. It is an addiction to tobacco-containing products such as cigarettes, caused by the drug nicotine. Sufferers can't stop using these products, even though they are causing their bodies harm. It is the nicotine in tobacco that causes this dependence, but the toxic effects and subsequent diseases come mainly from other substances in tobacco.

Prevalence[edit | edit source]

Globally[edit | edit source]

Of the 3.55 billion men in the world, 1 billion of them smoke, 35% of men from developed countries, and 50% of men from developing countries. 250 million of the 3.5 billion women in the world smoke, 22% of women from developed countries, and 9% of women from developed countries. Every day approximately 15 billion cigarettes are smoked across the world. [1]

Anti-smoking Campaign

Czech Republic[edit | edit source]

Research from 2009 states that 23.6% of Czech citizens smoke at least one cigarette per day, there are a further 2.7% of citizens who smoke less than one cigarette per day, but are still classed as smokers. This means that 26.3% of Czech citizens can be classed as smokers. 28% of Czech doctors and 40% of Czech nurses smoke, which does not set a good example for their patients.

Between 1997 and 2009, the prevalence of smoking in people between 15 and 65 years old has stayed relatively constant. The highest proportion of smokers was found in the youngest age group researched, 15-24 years old.

Morbidity[edit | edit source]

Many studies on smoking and its effects have shown that it harms almost every organ in the human body. It is a proven risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, lung, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, bladder, kidney, cervix and acute myeloid leukaemia. Smoking can also lead to strokes, COPD, asthma, coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular diseases, tuberculosis and cataracts as well as many other diseases.

Smoking has been shown to be directly responsible for 90% of lung cancers, 75% of chronic bronchitis and 25% of coronary heart disease. The risk of death due to lung cancer is 23 times higher in smokers than in non-smokers.

Mortality (Death from smoking)[edit | edit source]

“Tobacco use can kill in so many ways that it is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world” Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General, 2008 WHO Report on The Global Tobacco Epidemic. [2]

One person dies every 8 seconds because of smoking. Due to the current increasing consumption of cigarettes, it is estimated that the number of deaths will increase from 5 million per year to 10 million per year, within the next 20 years. Hygiene Tobacco kills more people than drugs, AIDS, car accidents, suicides and murders combined.

References[edit | edit source]

BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene and epidemiology : selected chapters. 2. edition. Prague. 2008. ISBN 80-246-0793-X