Enzyme cofactors

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Last update: Saturday, 17 Dec 2022 at 9.12 pm.

Metal ions and trace elements[edit | edit source]

Cofactor Examples of enzymes
Zn2+ Peptidases, alcohol dehydrogenase
Mg2+ ATP dependent enzymes, phosphohydrolases
Mn2+ Superoxide dismutase, arginase
Fe2+/ Fe3+ Cytochromes, catalase, peroxidases
Cu2+ Cytochrome oxidase, amino oxidase
Mo2+ Xanthine dehydrogenase

Organic substances[edit | edit source]

Cofactors of oxidoreductases[edit | edit source]

Cofactor Default vitamin Location/Function
NAD+, NADP+ Nicotinic acid Respiratory chain, MK synthesis
FAD, FMN Riboflavin (B2 ) Breathing Chain
Ubiquinone/ubiquinol Respiratory chain
Hem Cytochromes

Transferase Cofactors[edit | edit source]

Cofactor Default vitamin Location/Function
ATP, GTP Thiamine (B1) Transfer of a phosphate residue
TDP (thiamine diphosphate) Thiamin (B1) Transfer of carbon fragments (oxidative decarboxylation)
PALP (pyridoxal phosphate) Pyridoxine (B6) Transfer of −NH2 groups (transamination), decarboxylation of amino acids
THF (tetrahydrofolate) Folate (folic acid) Transfer of one-carbon fragments
CoA (coenzyme A) Pantothenate Acyl transfer
PAPS (phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate) Sulfate transfer
SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) Methylation
B12-complex Cobalamin B12 Transfer of the CH3 group

Cofactors of lyases[edit | edit source]

Cofactor Default vitamin Location/Function
PALP (pyridoxal phosphate) Pyridoxine (B6) Decarboxylation

Cofactors of ligases[edit | edit source]

Cofactor Default vitamin Location/Function
Carboxybiotin Biotin CO2 transfer (carboxylation)