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Chlamydia are immobile, coccal, intracellular bacteria . These are parasites because they attack the host cells. Chlamydia are not able to obtain energy on their own and are therefore dependent on their host. Some of them survive in the host without harming him in any way. Others, on the other hand, cause infections in animals and humans, so-called chlamydiosis. Major pathogens include Chlamydia trachomatis , which causes urogenital infections, lymphogranuloma venereum, trachoma and neonatal infections, Chlamydia pneumoniae , the cause of pneumonia and other respiratory diseases, and Chlamydia psittaci , the cause of ornithosis and psittacosis.

Content[edit | edit source]

  • 1Distribution
  • 2Life cycle of chlamydia
  • 3Representatives
    • 3.1Chlamydia trachomatis
    • 3.2Chlamydia psittaci
    • 3.3Chlamydia pneumoniae
  • 4Treatment and examination
    • 4.1Chlamydia trachomatis
    • 4.2Chlamydia pneumoniae
  • 5Laboratory diagnostics
  • 6Links
    • 6.1related articles
    • 6.2Reference
    • 6.3External links
    • 6.4References

Distribution[edit | edit source]

Chlamydia have a lipopolysaccharide antigen that is common to the whole genus and protein antigens from the outer membrane. According to them, we distinguish  :

Life cycle of chlamydia edit source ][edit | edit source]

Life cycle of chlamydia The life cycle of chlamydia is unusual in bacteria and is more like viruses. During it, chlymydia occurs in two forms - as an elementary and reticular body. The elementary body is metabolically inactive, unable to divide, has a dense nucleus and a rigid cell wall that provides protection in the extracellular environment. The reticular body is metabolically active with the ability to divide. The infectious elementary body enters the host cell in a process that resembles endocytosis. The body remains in the endosome (phagosome) throughout the cycle because phagolysosomal fusion is blocked. After 8 to 9 hours  , it transforms into a non-infectious reticular body. In the next 16-24 hours , the reticular body is divided by binary division and then transformed back into an elementary body. The fate of the host cell can be twofold. Either its membrane is lysed, the cell breaks down and the elemental bodies infect the surrounding cells. Or the cell survives and the elemental bodies get out by exocytosis (often in permanently infected cells). The whole cycle lasts 48-72 hours .

Shortcuts[edit | edit source]

Chlamydia trachomatis[edit | edit source]

More detailed information can be found on the Chlamydia trachomatis page .

Causes trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis. In men, it can cause urethritis , prostatitis and epididymitis . In women, urethritis, endometritis, salpingitis can occur, which can lead to inflammatory disease of the pelvic organs. It is transmitted through sexual intercourse.Inflammation of the cervix in a patient with Chlamydia trachomatis infection

Chlamydia psittaci _ _ edit source ][edit | edit source]

It lives in the respiratory tract of birds. It causes epizootic infections in cats or sheep and psittacosis in humans . A person becomes infected by contact with a dead or sick bird. The disease is manifested by fever. It is also presented as an influenzadisease or as severe pneumonitis with enlargement of the spleenand liver. The disease is treated with tetracyclines for at least two weeks.

Chlamydia pneumoniae[edit | edit source]

It is a parasite living in the respiratory organs. It is the main cause of pneumonia- pneumonia . It spreads by interpersonal contact. The disease is treated with fluorochinolony.

Treatment and examination[edit | edit source]

Chlamydia trachomatis[edit | edit source]

Chlamydia can be detected in a patient as early as seven days after infection. A cervical swab is taken, in men a urethra. We can also prove the infection from bloodsamples . If an infectionis detected, the patient is treated with antibiotics. It is important that both partners are treated to avoid re-transmission. Antibiotic treatment may not always be successful for the first time. If the pathogen still persists in the body, the inflammation may recur and progress to a chronic state .

Chlamydia pneumoniae[edit | edit source]

We perform testing by blood tests together with testing of urine, swabs and lavages from the throat, nose and mucous membranes.

Laboratory diagnostics[edit | edit source]

Material suitable for diagnostics

  • urogenital infections: urethral swab in men, endocervical swabs in women
  • conjunctivitis: smear or scrape of conjunctiva

Direct diagnostics:

  • antigen detection by ELISA methods, immunofluorescence
  • detection of specific DNA segments by PCR
  • tissue culture

Indirect diagnosis is based on serological detection of antibodies.

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles _ _ edit source ][edit | edit source]

References _ _ _ edit source ][edit | edit source]

  1. ↑ MUDr. Pavel Gebousky, MD Jaroslav Kapla, MD Pavel Kosina, Specialized Society of Infectious Medicine, Czech Medical Society of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, < >
  2. ↑ BEDNÁŘ, Marek, Andrej SOUČEK and Věra FRAŇKOVÁ, et al. Medical microbiology: Bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1996. 558 pp.  ISBN 8594031505280 .

External links _ _ edit source ][edit | edit source]

  • Chlamydia  [online]. [feeling. 2012-05-14]. < >.

References _ _ _ edit source ][edit | edit source]

  • SCHINDLER, Jiri. Microbiology for medical students. 1st edition. Prague: Grada, 2010. 223 pp.  ISBN 978-80-247-3170-4 .
  • BEDNÁŘ, Marek, V. FRAŇKOVÁ and J. SCHINDLER. Medical Microbiology [online]  . 1st edition. Praha: Marvil, 1997. Also available from < >.