The central or also spastic form of polio is characterized by involvement of the central motoneuron. Thus, the lesion is located in the CNS , whether in the brain or spinal cord. The etiology can be varied, eg: strokes, tumors, CNS inflammation, trauma, subdural or epidural hematomas, etc. Depending on the severity and location, we distinguish between plegia (complete paralysis) and paresis (partial paralysis only).
Characteristics of central paralysis[edit | edit source]
- Spasticity — increased resting muscle tone; the patient is stiff
- Hyperreflexia — reflexes are more vivid, more pronounced and their reflector zone is widened
- Paresis or plegia
- Muscle hypotrophy — often due to inactivity
- Irritant phenomena — manifestations of the pyramid path (Babinski, Juster,...)