Brudzinski's sign

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There are several modifications of this manoeuver, the most important being the one in which the patient lies on his/her back and we perform anteflexion of the neck. If there is involuntary flexion of the initially extended lower limbs at the knees we evaluate the symptom as positive (Brudzinský I).[1]

Brudzinsky I (video, Centre for Electronic Education, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University)]

Other Brudzinski manoeuvers are less used. Brudzinski believed that some of his symptoms could be positive for one pathology while other symptoms were positive for another. Since Brudzinski's sign tends to be positive in meningitis, which must be treated and therefore diagnosed quickly, we do not dwell on finding the positivity of all signs.[2]

  • Brudzinski II is positive when pressure on the yoke arch produces a painful grimace.[3]
  • Brudzinski III is positive when pressure on the symphysis ossis pubis induces flexion of the lower limbs.[3]
  • Brudzinski IV is positive if flexion of one extended limb at the hip causes flexion of the other limb.[3]


Related articles

External links


  1. ROTH, Jan – FIALA, Ondřej – RŮŽIČKA, Evžen. Neurological examination - norm [online]. [cit. 2012-11-22]. <>.
  2. VARGHESE, A. – GALLEMORE, G.. Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs revisited [online]. [cit. 2012-11-22]. <>.
  3. a b c -,. Meningeal Syndrome [online]. [cit. 2012-11-28]. <>.