Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bronchial obstruction.[edit | edit source]
Presumed terms: airway resistance
Pathological changes in airway resistance[edit | edit source]
- chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, airway obstruction,
- air trapping,
- The relationship between regional changes in pulmonary resistance and the compliance and uniformity of pulmonary ventilation.
COPD, two basic clinical forms and their consequences[edit | edit source]
(Emphysema. Chronic bronchitis. Pink puffers. Blue bloaters. Smoking.)
Division[edit | edit source]
- Functional: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
- emphysematic type.
- bronchitic type.
Emphysema of the lungs, Chronic bronchitis[edit | edit source]
Definition of emphysema[edit | edit source]
Excessive expansion of the terminal respiratory spaces associated with a disorder of the interalveolar septa.
Causes[edit | edit source]
A combination of mechanical, functional, vascular, tissue (proteolysis in lung tissue), genetic (alpha 1 antitrypsin) and external harmful factors (smoking).
Definition of chronic bronchitis[edit | edit source]
The well-known epidemiological diagnosis of chronic bronchitis (Fletcher, 1959) - cough with expectoration, for at least three months of the year for at least two consecutive years - has proven to be useful for clinical medicine as well.
Functional changes[edit | edit source]
Uneven loss of lung tissue elasticity (increase in static lung compliance, increase in FRC). Uneven increase in airway resistance (FEV1 – one-second vital capacity). A reduction in diffusion area (even if there is an increase in FRC). Uneven pulmonary ventilation (venous admixture) and perfusion (increased alveolar dead space). Respiratory insufficiency. Increased work of breathing. Sometimes pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale (hypoxia, hypercapnia in the alveoli, changes in breathing mechanics, morphological changes in the lungs).
Links[edit | edit source]
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Source[edit | edit source]
- VÍZEK, Martin. Repetitorium [online]. [cit. 2012-09-29]. <https://web.archive.org/web/20130512032641/http://pf.lf2.cuni.cz/vyuka/repetitorium.html>.