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Template:Heslo náhled|vpravo|250px|ANCA positive, cANCA type imunofluorescence, antibodies targeting proteinase e3 (PR3). náhled|vpravo|250px|ANCA positive, pANCA type imunoflourescence, antibodies targeting myeloperoxase. ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) are autoantibodies targeted against various antigens found in neutrophils (proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase, elastase, cathepsin G, azurocidin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and BPI). Standart in detection of ANCA is direct immunofluorescence on ethanol-fixed human neutrophils.

Due to the different distribution of the above proteins, three types of positivity are described:

  • cANCA: cytoplasmatic immunofluorescence;
  • pANCA: perinuclear immunofluorescence;
  • xANCA or aANCA: atypical immunofluorescence.

ANCAs are typically detectable in vasculitis. cANCA are characteristic for Wegener's granulomatosis, pANCA for polyarteritis. ANCA can be detected in a number of other diseases.

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