Fat in food

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--Martin Vejražka.jpg MUDr. Martin Vejražka, PhD. (e-mail) -- WikiScript editors 10/11/2022, 17:05 (CET)

Butter (animal origin)
Vegetable oils

Fats (lipids), composed of fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols and phospholipids and free (unesterified) or esterified [[ cholesterol]], should cover 28-30% of the energy intake.

Function[edit | edit source]

Fats are the most abundant source of energy. They have about 2x higher energy value compared to carbohydrates. In excess, they are stored in the subcutaneous tissue and act as a thermal insulator. They are also carriers of fat-soluble vitamins and a source of unsaturated fatty acids.

Cholesterol is necessary for the construction of cell membranes – especially in a growing organism. It is also used for the production of steroid hormones, sex hormones and bile acids.

Heterolipids (phospholipids, lipoproteins) are used in the structure of tissues and various specific functions of the organism.

Excessive fat intake[edit | edit source]

Excessive dietary fat intake causes:

  1. Increased fat storage and subsequently obesity.
  2. Increased risk of the incidence of certain cancers (colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer).
  3. Immunosuppression.
  4. Hormonal imbalance of the organism.
  5. Excessive intake of cholesterol is involved in hypercholesterolemia and the subsequent development of atherosclerosis, IHD and peripheral artery disease, PAD.
  6. Foods containing fat provide suitable conditions for the production of mycotoxins and for the accumulation of lipophilic foreign toxic substances from the environment (polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, aflatoxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc.).
  7. The double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids are prone to oxidative changes that lead to lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and to the burden of the organism with oxidative stress. Therefore, a sufficient supply of substances with antioxidant action (vitamin C, E, A, β-carotene and other plant antioxidants) is necessary.

Low fat intake[edit | edit source]

Lack of fat causes insufficient absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K).

See also[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • BENCKO, Vladimir. Hygiene – teaching texts for seminars and practical exercises. 2. edition. Charles University, 2002. 204 pp. ISBN 80-7184-551-5.

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